Types of distillation include:

Batch Distillation – A mixture of two volatile substances is heated until it boils. The vapor will contain a higher concentration of the more volatile component, so more of it will be condensed and removed from the system. This changes the ratio of components in the boiling mixture, raising its boiling point.

If there is a large difference in the vapor pressure between the two components, the boiled liquid will become higher in the less volatile component, while the distillate will be mostly the more volatile component.

Batch distillation is the most common type of distillation used in a laboratory.

Continuous Distillation – Distillation is ongoing, with new liquid fed into the process and separated fractions continuously removed. Because new material is input, the concentrations of the components should not change as in batch distillation.

Simple Distillation – In simple distillation, vapor enters a condenser, cools, and is collected. The resulting liquid has a composition identical to that of the vapor, so simple distillation is used when components have greatly different boiling points or to separate volatile from non-volatile components.

Fractional Distillation – Both batch and continuous distillation may incorporate fractional distillation, which involves use of a fractionating column above the distillation flask. The column offers more surface area, allowing for more efficient condensation of vapor and an improved separation. A fractionating column may even be set up to include subsystems with separate liquid-vapor equilibrium values.

Steam Distillation – In steam distillation, water is added to the distilling flask. This lowers the boiling point of the components so they may be separated at a temperature below their decomposition point.

Other types of distillation include vacuum distillation, short-path distillation, zone distillation, reactive distillation, pervaporation, catalytic distillation, flash evaporation, freeze distillation, and extractive distillation,



Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected.

Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature and/or pressure.

A plant that performs distillation is called a distillery. The apparatus used to perform distillation is called a still.


Distillation is used for many commercial processes, such as the production of gasoline, distilled water, xylene, alcohol, paraffin, kerosene, and many other liquids. Gas may be liquefied and separate. For example: nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are distilled from air.


Types of distillation include simple distillation, fractional distillation (different volatile ‘fractions’ are collected as they are produced), and destructive distillation (usually, a material is heated so that it decomposes into compounds for collection).


Simple distillation may be used when the boiling points of two liquids are significantly different from each other or to separate liquids from solids or nonvolatile components. In simple distillation, a mixture is heated to change the most volatile component from a liquid into vapor.

The vapor rises and passes into a condenser. Usually, the condenser is cooled (e.g., by running cold water around it) to promote condensation of the vapor, which is collected.


Steam distillation is used to separate heat-sensitive components. Steam is added to the mixture, causing some of it to vaporize. This vapor is cooled and condensed into two liquid fractions. Sometimes the fractions are collected separately, or they may have different density values, so they separate on their own. An example is steam distillation of flowers to yield essential oil and a water-based distillate.


Fractional distillation is used when the boiling points of the components of a mixture are close to each other, as determined using Raoult’s law. A fractionating column is used to separate the components used a series of distillations called rectification. In fractional distillation, a mixture is heated so vapor rises and enters the fractionating column. As the vapor cools, it condenses on the packing material of the column. The heat of rising vapor causes this liquid to vaporize again, moving it along the column and eventually yielding a higher purity sample of the more volatile component of the mixture.


Vacuum distillation is used to separate components that have high boiling points. Lowering the pressure of the apparatus also lowers boiling points. Otherwise, the process is similar to other forms of distillation. Vacuum distillation is particularly useful when the normal boiling point exceeds the decomposition temperature of a compound.

How to Start a Mini Private Oil Refinery (Petroleum Products)

All over the world, oil business is such that is taken really seriously. This is because of the huge profit that this natural resources rakes into the economies of the world. That is why even the world power countries like the united states of America would do all it takes to be in control of the world’s oil wealth.

Countries like the united Arabs emirates, as well as other countries are neck deep in the production and distribution of oil. However, that is not to say that oil business is strictly for nations, and big conglomerates. Truth is that you as an individual can also start your own oil refinery.

What really is mini oil refinery business all about, you may ask? A Mini-refinery has to do with automated, skid-mounted oil distillation units for processing about 6,000 barrels/day or more of crude petroleum. This trade is really gaining acceptance because they are cheaper and easier to mount and do not need the number of years required to build and install a conventional (large scale) refinery.

If you think this line of business might be something you would want to dabble into, or if you have always had a penchant for oil business, then you may also want to take seriously the tips to be reeled out in this article. Do note that starting this type of business does need huge funding. Here goes all the tips that can help you realize your dream of starting a mini oil refinery…

Starting a Mini Private Oil Refinery – Sample Business Plan Template

1. Research Is Needful

Even if you do not want to take seriously the need to undertake some research every now and then, but it is very important that you take seriously the quest to do some research as it regards starting a mini refinery.

This is because you stand to gain a whole lot when you start with reading up a lot. More so, you would be able to learn a great deal when you read about the experiences of other entrepreneurs who may have gone before you. Also you need to be conversant with some technicalities in the industry.

2. Have an Educational Background

This is very important in this field of trade, as you have to come to terms with some foundational truths. This is why it may be needful that you have a sound educational back ground in some science related courses that can help aid you in oil refineries. The following courses would do; they include geology and mining, petroleum engineering, petro-chemical engineering, and a host of other courses.

However, you must note that this doesn’t mean that you couldn’t possibly start a mini oil refinery without this. This only means that you may consider having someone who has a background in one of these areas instead to be on your team.

3. Write a Business Plan

Writing a business plan is very vital. This is because to a large extent, it would help you to know how to run your business now and for future purpose. Therefore, you may want to consider allowing an expert help you with this area.

This is because there may be some financial projections that you would need to deal with on a professional level. Be sure that there are short terms and long term goals in your plan too. You can consider getting a template of how a crude oil refinery business plan looks like from the internet.

4. Get Trained

 It isn’t enough that you just have background knowledge in oil refinery; it is very needful that you also get some hands- on trainings. This might not come easy as it may entail that you work in an oil refinery station. The question therefore is, what happens when you aren’t able to secure a job at an oil refinery station?

Then you want to try out another option; which is to volunteer to be a worker for no fee. If that doesn’t work out fine, then you can think of bringing in an expert to help you set things up. This might cost a lot, but you can be sure to get the best.

5. Get a Space

Starting a mini oil refinery necessitates the use of a limited   land space than what the regular large scale refineries require. You can look to locating your mini refinery in the suburb of town.

You should also look out for the refinery to be mounted close to the crude supply source. Ideally experts advice that one unit of it may not entail more than 4 plots of land. Good news is also that they can be mounted in just a few days, since they come in prefabricated modules.

Furthermore they can as well be dismounted when there is a need for relocation. If you want something a bit bigger than four plots of land, then you can consider mounting several refining units within the same premises to meet diverse dispensation needs.

6. Get Experts to Do All the Equipping

You would need some very deep experts to help in the equipping of your mini refinery. Do note that this could cost quite a lot, but you can rest assured that it wouldn’t cost as much as what you may need to start the regular large refineries. You may decide to use a different expert, or use the same person whom you trained with to pull things off, since you may not be too versed in this regard.

7. Advertise Your Business

You may begin to let words out to oil marketers, as well as owners of filling stations about your mini oil refinery. This is so important since your ability to make profit would be hinged on the amount of clients you are able to get.

Would these tips really help you in starting your mini oil refinery? Indeed the answer would be a resounding yes, as these are tips that have been used by experts who are enjoy the dividends of owning a mini oil refinery.